In the second of our snapshot series exploring coal’s role in countries across the globe, we take a look at Turkey – a transcontinental country with around 82 million people and a rapidly expanding economy.
Key energy facts
- Turkey is the 18th largest energy consumer in the world.
- According to the IEA, the country’s total primary energy supply (TPES) is 31% oil, 28.1% coal, 28.1% natural gas, 4.2% hydro, 6.3% geothermal, 2.3% biofuels and waste.
- Fossil fuels account for over 87% of the country’s energy mix.
- Last year, Turkey’s electricity generation by source was 36.8% coal, 29.8% natural gas and 32.9% renewables.
- Coal was the largest single source for power generation.
Coal capacity and forecasts
- Turkey is the biggest user of coal-fired power among countries in the Middle East, with the capacity of existing plants estimated to be 18.5 GW.
- Coal demand in Turkey is projected to rise at an average annual rate of 3.3% to 2023. Coal production is also projected to increase from 22 to 28 Mtce (Megatons of Coal Equivalent) through to 2023.
Climate policies and environmental issues
- Although its energy needs are mostly met by fossil fuels, Turkey accounts for only 0.83% of global emissions.
- Emissions per capita have historically been much lower than EU and OECD average levels.
- In its INDC, Turkey pledged to reduce emissions by up to 21% by 2030 and has identified a role for high efficiency low emission coal technologies to achieve this.
Find out more about countries that have identified a role for HELE technologies in their Paris Agreement targets here.